Question Answer
What is the definition of Emphysema A weakening and premanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles; destruction of the alveolar walls
What are some causes of emphysema smoking chronic irritation and inflammation Infections and pollutants Alpha one Anti-trypsin
What is the definition of Emphysema A weakening and premanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles; destruction of the alveolar walls
what is the most common cause of Emphysema Smoking
What are some causes of emphysema smoking chronic irritation and inflammation Infections and pollutants Alpha one Anti-trypsin
What are the two different types emphysema centrilobar panlobar
Which type of emphysema is more common centrilobar
what is the most common cause of Emphysema Smoking
What parts of the lungs does panlobar affect respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs which are destroyed by elastase
What are the two different types emphysema centrilobar panlobar
What parts of the lungs does centrilobar affect respiratory bronchioles, upper lobes, increased protease
Which type of emphysema is more common centrilobar
What happens in pathophysiology of emphysema Destruction
What happens in pathophysiology of emphysema Destruction
What parts of the lungs does panlobar affect respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs which are destroyed by elastase
What parts of the lungs does centrilobar affect respiratory bronchioles, upper lobes, increased protease
What happens in pathophysiology of emphysema Destruction of alveolar sacs loss of recoil/increased complicance (floppy airways) Exhalation incomplete and requires energy V/Q mismatch chest/heart becomes long and narrow Diaphragm flattens
What happens when the lungs dont recoil increase compliance (floppy airways) premature airway closure leading to air trapping, hyperinflation increased RV, FRC, TLC
What are some signs and symptoms of emphysema Acessory muscle use- braced and leaned forward (tripod position) Pursed Lip breathing Cachetic/malnorished Yellow fingers possible from smoking Digital Clubbing Polycythemia Cor Pulmonale JVD- edema (if cor pulmonale) Increased RR, HR Dry NPC
When would a pt with anti-trypsin alpha 1 start to become symptomatic age 32-41
What would you see on a chest xray/ct scan if the pt had emphysema Hyperlucent lung fields Bullae/Blebs Prominent pulmonary arteries Flatten diaphragm blunted costaphrenic angle
How does alpha anti-trypsin affect the lung liver that produces anit-trypsin deficiency does not release and neurtrophils elastance run rampage and kill the elastance in the lungs
What is a bullae Air pockets greater than one cm in the lung parenchyma
What is a bleb acumulations of air within the layers of the viceral pleura (usually smaller than bullae)
What could you see on a pt’s PFT with a diagnoses of emphysema Decreased FEF Increased TLC, RV, FRC increased RV/TLC Low diffusion
what are some treatments you would see in emphysema Brochial hygiene lung reduction breathing techniques O2 Mechanical ventilation Lung transplant
In an alpha one antitrypsin pt what is a medication/treatment giving them prolastin