Egan’s Chapter 23 Practice Questions:

1. Which of the following statements about the functions of the respiratory system is (are) true? All of the above statements are true.

2. What cells within the alveoli are capable of phagocytosis and can, therefore, engulf particulate matter that might reach the alveoli?: alveolar macrophages

3. The difference between the true and false vocal cords is that the false vocal cords: play no part in sound production

4. Structures in the trachea that prevent its collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system are the: C-shaped tracheal cartilages

5. If food particles or liquids manage to touch the surfaces of the ventricular or vocal folds, the: coughing reflex will be triggered

6. Which of the following statements about the trachea is false?: Stimulation by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system will decrease the diameter of the trachea, thus making it more difficult to breathe.

7. In a bronchiole, the release of histamine by activated mast cells and basophils: increases bronchoconstriction and decreases airflow

8. The parietal pleura are attached to the: all of the above

9. During internal respiration, the exchange of the respiratory gases takes place between which of the following?: the systemic capillaries and the interstitial fluid that surrounds the cells

10. Breathing, which involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs, is: pulmonary ventilation

11. Air enters the respiratory passageways when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the: atmospheric pressure

12. During quiet breathing, the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles contract. What effect does this have on the thoracic cavity?: increases the volume and decreases the pressure of the thoracic cavity

13. During expiration there is a(n): increase in intrapulmonary pressure

14. Which of the following statements about the respiratory membrane is (are) true?: All of the above statements are true.

15. Which gas is most soluble in plasma?: carbon dioxide

16. The efficiency of pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary circulation occurs because: blood flow and air flow are coordinated

17. The Po2 in the blood that travels through a pulmonary capillary and enters the left side of the heart is approximately: 95 mm Hg

18. Each molecule of hemoglobin has the capacity to carry __________ atoms of oxygen (O2).: 8

19. What percentage of total oxygen (O2) is carried within red blood cells chemically bound to hemoglobin?: 98%

20. What structure marks the beginning of the lower respiratory system?: larynx

21. When each hemoglobin molecule binds with four molecules of oxygen, the end product is: oxyhemoglobin

22. Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood mostly as: a bicarbonate ion

23. With an increase in skeletal muscle activity and an increase in body temperature, you would expect to see a(n): decrease in the percentage of oxyhemoglobin saturation

24. Which of the following statements about the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups is (are) true?: Both a and b are correct.

25. The Hering-Breuer Reflex is important in regulating the forced ventilations that accompany strenuous exercise. This reflex is initiated by: stretch receptor stimulation located in the smooth muscle of bronchioles

26. The paranasal sinuses include: frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary

27. A rise in arterial Pco2 elevates carbon dioxide levels in cerebrospinal fluid and stimulates the chemoreceptive neurons of the medulla to produce: hyperventilation

28. The primary function of pulmonary ventilation is to maintain adequate: alveolar ventilation

29. The purpose of the fluid in the pleural cavity is to: reduce friction between the parietal and visceral pleura

30. When the lungs are in the resting position, the factor that opposes their collapse is: an intrapulmonary pressure of 760 mm Hg

31. If a person is stabbed in the chest and the thoracic wall is punctured but the lung is not penetrated: the lungs will collapse

32. The most important factor determining airway resistance is: airway radius

33. The parasympathetic division of the ANS causes __________ of airway smooth muscle; therefore, resistance is __________.: constriction; increased

34. The substance administered during an asthmatic attack to decrease resistance via airway dilation is: epinephrine

35. With regard to local regulation of gas transport, if the Pco2 in the bronchioles increase, the bronchioles: dilate

36. The volume of alveolar air and capillary blood in the right proportion to each alveolus produces: lung efficiency

37. If a person is breathing 15 times a minute and has a tidal volume of 500 ml, the total respiratory minute volume is: 7,500 ml/min

38. Residual volume is the volume of air: that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration

39. The maximum amount of air moved in and out during a single breath is: vital capacity

40. If a person is breathing 12 times per minute and the tidal volume is 500 ml, what is the alveolar ventilation rate?: 4,200 ml/min

41. The most effective means of increasing alveolar ventilation is: breathe slowly and deeply

42. In respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn, the administering of adrenal steroid serves to: enhance surfactant-synthesizing maturation

43. The partial pressure of O2 at sea level is: 104 mm Hg

44. It is important that free H+ resulting from dissociation of H2CO3 combine with hemoglobin to reduce the possibility of: an acidic condition within the blood

45. In the pulmonary capillaries, the bicarbonate ion is always returned to the: RBC

46. If you desired to control the rate of respiration voluntarily you might: hold your breath

47. One of the early symptoms of emphysema is: a reduced expiratory volume

48. As the number of molecules of gas dissolved in a liquid increases: the pressure of the gas increases

49. Movement of air into and out of the lungs is accomplished by the process of __________, while all movement of gases across membranes is by __________.: bulk flow; passive diffusion

50. The correct sequential transport of O2 from the tissue capillaries to O2 consumption in cells is: erythrocytes, plasma, interstitial fluid, cells

51. 2 major causes of COPD: cigarette smoking & alpha1-antitrypsin

52. 2 reasons for passive atelectasis: pain, sedation

53. 2 reasons for resorption atelectasis: impaired cough, history of lung disease

54. CBABE: C- Cystic Fibrosis; B-Bronchiectasis; A-Asthma; B-Bronchitis (Chronic); E-Emphysema

55. COPD-Enhancing survival: Smoking cessation is first-line intervention; annual influenza & pneumococcal vaccinations

56. Emergency management of asthma: Early & frequent use of aerosolized beta2 agonists; high dose corticosteroids; O2 therapy; antibiotics

57. Environmental control of asthma: Remain inside with windows closed, no pets, air purifiers, dust

58. Late signs of COPD: Barrel chest, flattened diaphragm, accessory muscle usage, edema from cor pulmonale, changes in mental status due to decreased oxygen

59. Name 2 characteristics of Asthma: Airway inflammation increased mucus production

60. Name 2 characteristics of Bronchiectasis: Excessive purulent sputum, irreversible dilatation of the bronchi

61. Name 2 characteristics of Bronchitis (chronic): Bronchitis for 3 months out of the year, for 2 consecutive years; excessive secretions

62. Name 2 characteristics of Cystic Fibrosis: genetic, high salt content in sweat

63. Name 2 characteristics of Emphysema: Less surface area in alveoli, little to no secretions, cor pulmonale

64. Optimize lung function for COPD: Prn bronchodilators for all COPD patients, Systemic corticosteroid trial, Methylxanthines

65. Primary goal of treating COPD: To maximize ability to perform daily tasks

66. Types of atelectasis: Resorption & passive

67. Acute Exacerbation of COPD: State of worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Often defined by the need to increase medication or to escalate care.

68. Airway Hyper-responsiveness: State of airways that causes them to constrict abnormally in response in response to stress or insults (e.g., exercise, inhaled materials such as dust or allergens)

69. Airway Inflammation: Localized protective response to pathogens occurring within the routes for passage of air into and out of the lungs and invoking the release of mediators including mast cells, eosinophils, macrophage, epithelial cells, and T lymphocytes

70. Airway Obstruction: State of abnormally slowed expiration, characterized most commonly by decrease in FEV1

71. Asthma: Is a clinical syndrome characterized by airway obstruction, which is partially or completely reversible either spontaneously or with treatment

72. Bronchodilator: Substance, especially a drug that relaxes contractions of the smooth muscle walls of the bronchioles to improve ventilation to the lungs. Pharmacologic bronchodilators are prescribed to improve aeration in asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, and emphysema.

73. Bronchospasm: Abnormal contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi, which results into acute narrowing and obstruction

74. Chronic Bronchitis: Defined in clinical terms as a condition in which chronic productive cough is present for at least 3 months per years for at least 2 consecutive years

75. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: (C.O.P.D.): Refers to a disease state of the respiratory system characterized by the presence of the presence of incompletely reversible airflow obstruction

76. Emphysema: Defined in anatomic terms as a condition characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces beyond the terminal bronchiole, accompanied by destruction of the walls of airspace without fibrosis

77. Supplemental Oxygen: O2 delivered at concentrations exceeding 21% to increase the amount circulating within the blood