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This study guide covers a ton of helpful Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation practice questions.

So if that’s why you’re here, then you’ve come to the right place. NIV or noninvasive mechanical ventilation is something we have to use and deal with on a daily basis as a Respiratory Therapist, depending on where you work. That it why it’s so important to learn and understand this information.

Also, as a Respiratory Therapy student, you will need to know this stuff for the exams in your classes in school, and also some of it for the TMC Exam. That’s why we put this list together to make it easy for you. So are you ready to get started?

Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Practice Questions:

1. What is CPAP?
A Constant pressure applied to the spontaneously breathing patient.

2. CPAP is applied via what?
A mask-type device.

3. CPAP does not do what?
It does not provide volume change or support in the patient’s minute ventilation.

4. What are some indications for CPAP?
It helps treat obstructive sleep apnea, it improves oxygenation.

5. What does NPPV stand for and what does it do?
NPPV stands for: Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation. Pressure is applied intermittently with inspiration having a higher pressure than expiration.

6. What are the indications for NPPV?
Acute respiratory failure, and chronic respiratory failure.

7. What does NPPV provide?
It provides greater flexibility in the initiation and removal of mechanical ventilation.

8. What does NPPV permit?
Normal eating, drinking, and also communication with the patient.

9. What does NPPV preserve?
Airway defense, speech, and swallowing mechanisms.

10. NPPV avoids trauma associated with what?
Intubation, and the complications associated with artificial airways.

11. What does NPPV reduce the risk of?
VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.

12. NPPV also reduces the risk of what?
Ventilator-induced lung injuries associated with high ventilating pressures.

13. NPPV reduces muscle work and helps to what?
Avoid respiratory muscle fatigue that may lead to acute respiratory failure.

14. Does NPPV provide ventilator assistance with greater comfort, convenience, and less cost than invasive ventilation?
Yes, yes it does.

15. NPPV reduces the requirements of what?
Heavy sedation

16. NPPV reduces the need for what?
Invasive monitoring

17. What does NIV stand for?
Noninvasive ventilation

18. What are some contraindications of NIV?
Respiratory arrest (apnea) or the need for immediate intubation, unable to protect the airway, excessive secretions, hemodynamic instability, agitated and confused patients, paradoxical breathing, upper airway obstruction.

19. What are some other contraindications of NIV?
Facial deformities or conditions that could prevent a good mask fit, untreated pneumothorax, uncooperative of unmotivated patients, brain injury with unstable respiratory drive, major organ damage (severe hemorrhaging), recent GI surgery, irreversibility of disorder.

20. What are devices that can be used to provide NIV?
Nasal Masks, full face masks, nasal pillows, nasal cushions, total face mask.

21. When fitting the nasal mask you should choose?
The smallest mask without obstructing the nostrils.

22. Where are some anatomic leaks with the nasal mask?
Leaks can occur in the sides of nose bridge above the lip.

23. For the nasal mask, the top of the mask is placed just above what?
The junction of the nasal bone and the cartilage.

24. The nasal mask should not be pinching the nose where?
At the side.

25. The lower part of the nasal mask should fit just above what?
The upper lip.

26. A common error in fitting the nasal mask is what?
Choosing a mask that is too large.

27. What attaches to the end of the mask and rests on the forehead and helps reduce pressure on the bridge of the nose?
Foam bridges

28. What are some advantages of nasal masks?
Less risk of aspiration, enhanced secretion clearance, less claustrophobia, easier speech, and less dead space.

29. What are some disadvantages of the nasal mask?
Mouth leak, less effectiveness with nasal obstruction, nasal irritation and rhinorrhea, and mouth dryness.

30. Full face masks are most often successful in which type of patient?
The critically ill patients.

31. The pressure pick off port does what?
It allows a pressure manometer to measure pressure.

32. The ball and socket clip (escape clips) allows for what?
Easy mask removal.

33. A full face mask surrounds what?
The nose and mouth and rests below the lower lip.

34. What are the landmarks for a full mask?
Below the lower lip with the mouth open. Corners of the mouth. Just below the junction of nasal bone and cartilage.

35. Should the full face masks fit even if the patients mouth is slightly open?
Yes, yes it should.

36. You should be sure the mask fits well and does not leak excessively where?
Anywhere really, but particularly in the eyes.

37. Full face masks are most effective for?
Dyspneic patients.

38. What are some disadvantages of a full face mask?
Increased deadspace, difficulty in maintaining a seal, increased risk of pressure sores, claustrophobia, increased aspiration risk, difficulty with speech, inability to eat with the mask on, difficulty with secretion clearance, and possible asphyxiation.

39. Nasal pillows or nasal cushions are suitable for patients with what?
Claustrophobia, skin sensitivities, and the need for visibility.

40. How do you properly fit a nasal pillow or nasal cushion?
Use a plastic sizing gauge that is inserted in each nostril.

41. Some leaks may be caused by excessive tension of what?
The head straps.

41. In order to fit properly, headgear tension should allow?
1-2 fingers between the head straps and the face.

42. What should you use for patients without a full set of teeth?
Using a full face or total face mask can help minimize leaks.

43. What are the vented masks for?
They require a vent for exhalation and use only one corrugated tube to connect to the ventilator.

44. What is a characteristic about non-vented masks?
They have both an inspiratory and expiratory line. In a non-vented mask, the exhaled volumes, flows, and pressures can be monitored.

45. What are some complications associated with NIV?
Hemodynamic instability, risk of aspiration, claustrophobia, gastric insufflation/distention, use of NG tubes is difficult, eye irritation, poor sleep quality, nasal or oral dryness/congestion, sinus or ear pain, and skin problems.

46. What is the typical IPAP setting?
It is typically 8 – 12 cmH2O. It can be adjusted to change the tidal volume.

47. What is the typical EPAP setting?
It is usually started out at 4 cmH2O and can be increased in order to improve oxygenation.

48. What does the rise time do?
It determines how fast the vent rises from baseline pressure to target pressure.

49. The high and low-pressure alarm must be set to what in ST mode?
It should be set at +/- 5 in ST mode.

50. The low minute ventilation is usually set at what?
10-20% below patient’s baseline.

51. When will the apnea alarm sound?
When it does not recognize a spontaneous breath.

52. The tidal volume/minute ventilation is a running average of what?
The last 6 breaths.

53. What are the 9 goals of NIV in the acute care setting?
Improve gas exchange, avoid intubation, decrease mortality, decrease the length of time on the ventilator, decrease the length of hospital stay, decrease the chance of ventilator associated pneumonia, relieve respiratory distress symptoms, improve patient-ventilator sycnhrony, and maximize patient comfort.

54. Which therapies should be considered the first line of therapy in patients with exacerbated COPD?
Noninvasive ventilation

55. What therapy should be tried first for a patient who has pulmonary edema from left heart failure?
CPAP

56. Which NIV settings are adequate for a pt with cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
Mask CPAP at 8 – 12 cm H2Ocm and 100% FiO2.

57. What are some benefits of CPAP in postop abdominal surgery?
It lowers the chances of intubation, pneumonia, and infection/sepsis rates.

58. Which groups of patients are considered at risk for reintubation?
COPD, CHF, hypercapnia.

59. Which restrictive thoracic diseases are successfully managed with NIV?
(1) Post-polio syndrome, (2) Chest wall deformities, (3) Neuromuscular diseases, (4) Spinal cord injuries, and (5) Severe kyphoscoliosis.

60. How does NIV benefit patients with restrictive thoracic diseases?
It helps to rest inspiratory muscles, it helps by lowering CO2, and it improves the patient’s compliance, FRC, and deadspace.

61. Which groups of patients with nocturnal hypoventilation respond to NIV?
Hypercarbic patients

62. A patient is being ventilated with a nasal mask to relieve dyspnea. This patient has a long history of COPD/hypercarbia. What is the goal of NIV with regards to the ABGs of this patient?
Return the PaCo2 to less than 60 mmHg.

63. What are the 4 contraindications for NIV?
(4) Uncooperative patient, (2) Lack of financial resources, (3) Non-supportive family, and (4) Copious secretions.

64. What 2 interfaces are most commonly used to apply NIV in the acute care setting?
Nasal mask and the Full face mask.

65. Which of the following is a potential risk for overtightening the straps on the mask?
Tissue necrosis

66. Which of the following interfaces is used in greater than 90% of patients with hypoventilation?
Full face Mask

67. Which two interfaces appear to be more efficient to improve ventilation?
Nasal pillows and the full face mask.

68. Which interfaces that improve ventilation appears to be tolerated the best?
Nasal Mask

69. Which ventilators are not used for NIV?
Negative pressure

70. What are 3 characteristics of most NIV ventilators?
(1) Microprocessor controlled, (2) blower driven, and (3) electrically powered.

71. What is the most important advantage of NIV over other types of ventilators?
It has the ability to trigger and cycle when small to moderate air leaks are present.

72. What are the required alarms for NIV?
Battery failure, circuit disconnect, and loss of power.

73. What strategy should be used when the patient complains of nasal congestion during the use of a nasal mask for NIV?
Add a heated humidifier.

74. Which is the current recommendation for adding humidity while using NIV?
Recommend it for long-term patients (longer than a day).

75. What defines the successful application of NIV?
Overall improvement of the patient’s ABG. You should be shooting for the PaO2 to increase and the PaCO2 to decrease.

76. What physiologic effect does raising the PEEP have on a patient receiving NIV?
An increased in FRC.

77. What is the best option for a patient in respiratory failure who continues to deteriorate 30 mins after the initiation of NIV?
Intubate and initiate mechanical ventilation.

78. What is the most common complication associated with NIV?
Air leaks

79. What is the recommended initial setting for ventilating pressure when delivering NIV in a pressure-triggered mode?
8 – 12 cm H20

80. What is the recommended initial setting for PEEP when delivering NIV in a pressure-triggered mode?
5 – 8 cmH2O

81. Initiating NIV can be done in which hospital settings?
Any acute care setting, the emergency department, the ICU, and of course, on the general floor.

82. What are the 3 modes commonly seen on NIV ventilators?
(1) CPAP, (2) Spontaneous (pressure support), and (3) timed (pressure assist/control).

83. What is required for noninvasive ventilators to work properly?
Continuous air leaks through one or more ports in the ventilator circuit or patient interface.

84. What mode of ventilation is most often used for NIV when a critical care ventilator is in use?
Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV)

85. What are the two levels of pressure on a BiPAP?
IPAP and EPAP

86. What is S/T mode on a BiPAP?
The patient determines the tidal volume. If the patient does not breath, the machine cycles to IPAP when time has elapsed.

87. What do you set in CPAP mode?
The pressure is set on continuous. The patient breaths on their own and they are in control of their respiratory rate and tidal volume. You set the EPAP only.

88. List some indications for BiPAP?
Respiratory failure, post-surgical patients, hypoxemia due to hypoventilation, sleep apnea, ventilatory muscle fatigue, upper airway obstruction, and post-extubation difficulties.

89. List some contraindications for BiPAP?
Pre-existing pneumothorax, hypotension, pre-existing lung disease (i.e. emphysema), nose bleeding, aspiration, and sinusitis.

90. What are some side effects of BiPAP?
Pressure ulcers, claustophobia, and eye irritiation.

91. Why would you adjust IPAP?
For ventilation problems.

92. Why would you adjust EPAP?
For oxygenation problems.

93. What is the IPAP initial setting?
8 – 12 cmH20

94. What is the EPAP initial setting?
3 – 5 cmH20

95. What is the initial setting for oxygen on a BiPAP?
You should match the patient’s previous FiO2 or titrate to obtain an acceptable PaO2.

96. If there is an increase in the patient’s PaCO2, what should you do?
Adjust the IPAP in order to create greater pressure differences between IPAP and EPAP. This increases alveolar ventilation.

97. What would you do if the patient has hypoxemia?
Increase the level of EPAP.

98. What does the exhalation port do?
If directs air. The patient exhales through the port that they do not rebreath their CO2.

99. How should the mask fit?
From the bridge of the nose to just below the nares. Make sure the mask rests above the upper lip.

100. For a CPAP machine, describe the pressure?
It will be constant during inhalation and exhalation.

101. Which mask likely improves the tidal volume the most?
Full face mask

102. What is EPAP and how does it help with sleep apnea?
It is the same as CPAP and can be used to improve oxygenation or prevent airway closure in obstructive sleep apnea.

103. What is IPAP and how does it help with sleep apnea?
When this mode is set at a higher pressure than the EPAP, positive pressure will be applied during the inspiratory phase. This will maintain a patent airway in obstructive sleep apnea.

104. When using the timed mode of support for NPPV the patient cannot do what?
Trigger additional mandatory breaths

105. A patient with uncomplicated obstructive sleep apnea will generally find relief with EPAP pressures of what?
5-10 cmH2O

106. Patients with neuromuscular diseases will usually do well with inspiratory pressures of what?
10-15 cmH2O

107. A maximum pressure of 15 – 22 cmH2O may be necessary to achieve adequate?
Alveolar gas exchange

108. During respiratory support, oxygen must be titrated into the mask to achieve what?
A desired FIO2

109. What are the two levels of CPAP in BIPAP?
IPAP during inspiration, EPAP during exhalation. The IPAP (ventilation) should be greater than the EPAP (oxygenation).

110. Describe BIPAP ventilator breaths?
They are flow triggered and require patient effort to be greater than 40 ml/sec to initiate an inspiration.

111. In BIPAP, what I:E ratio is preferred?
1:2

112. In BIPAP, what is the maximum inspiratory pressure?
22 cm H2O

113. During BIPAP the ventilator cannot provide adequate support for a patient with what?
High airway resistance or low lung compliance.

114. In BiPAP during operation, the IPAP is the inspiratory pressure needed to?
Abolish hypopnea and desaturation

115. In BiPAP during operation, what does the EPAP represent?
It is the expiratory pressure needed to keep the airway open.

116. When is BIPAP contraindicated?
On a patient with dysphagia.

Final Thoughts

So now that you have gone through these Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation practice questions, I hope you have a better understanding of BiPAP, CPAP, and everything else you need to know when it comes to NPPV. You can now take this information to help you pass your exams in school as well as the TMC Exam whenever that time comes.