37. Air trapping and increased residual volume can be caused by what?
Overinflation of the lungs, Fixation of ribs in an respiratory position, increased anterior-posterior diameter of thorax (barrel chest), and a Flattened diaphragm (on radiographs).
38. How can a flattened diaphragm be discovered?
Radiographs, for example, as in Emphysema.
39. What is barrel chest?
Fixation of ribs in an respiratory position, increased anterior-posterior diameter of thorax; commonly seen in patients with Emphysema.
40. What are the signs and symptoms of Emphysema?
Dyspnea, Hyperventilation with prolonged expiratory phase, Development of barrel chest, Anorexia, Fatigue, Weight loss, and clubbed of the fingers.
41. What are the Emphysema diagnostic tests?
Chest radiography and pulmonary function tests.
42. What is the treatment for Emphysema?
Avoidance of respiratory irritants, Immunization against influenza and pneumonia, Pulmonary rehabilitation, Appropriate breathing techniques, and Adequate nutrition and hydration.
43. What are the warning signs of Chronic Bronchitis?
Inflammation, obstruction, repeated infection, chronic coughing for 3 months or longer in 2 years.
44. What is typically the patient history with Chronic Bronchitis?
History of cigarette smoking or living in urban or industrial areas.
45. What is the process of Chronic Bronchitis?
Mucosa inflamed and swollen, Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucous glands, Fibrosis and thickening of bronchial wall, Low oxygen levels, Severe dyspnea and fatigue, and then Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.
46. What are the signs and symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis?
Constant productive cough, Tachypnea, Shortness of breath, Frequent thick and purulent secretions, Cough and rhonchi more severe in the morning, Hypoxia, Cyanosis, Hypercapnia, Polycythemia, Weight loss, and Signs of cor pulmonale.
47. What is Asthma?
Bronchial obstruction that occurs in persons with hypersensitive or hyperresponsive airways.
48. Asthma often occurs in what ages?
It may occur in childhood or have an adult onset. There is often family history of allergic conditions.
49. What is extrinsic asthma?
Acute episodes triggered by type I hypersensitivity reactions.
50. What is intrinsic asthma?
The onset occurs during adulthood. Hyperresponsive tissue in airway initiates an attack.
51. What are the stimuli for intrinsic asthma?
Respiratory infections, Stress, Exposure to cold, Inhalation of irritants, Exercise, and Drugs.
52. What are the pathophysiological changes of Asthma?
In the bronchi and bronchioles there is inflammation of the mucosa with edema, bronchoconstriction caused by contraction of smooth muscle, there is increased secretions of thick mucus in the airways; and these changes create obstructed airways.
53. What are the symptoms of Asthma?
Cough, marked dyspnea, tight feeling in chest, wheezing, rapid and labored breathing, and expulsion of thick or sticky mucus.
54. What are the signs of Asthma?
Tachycardia, pulsus paradoxus, hypoxia, respiratory alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, severe respiratory distress, and respiratory failure.